Cabriole Leg

A leg used on Queen Anne furniture. The cabriole leg is characterized by graceful curves and a shape that resembles an animal leg.


The live, actively growing, layer of a tree. The cambium is one cell thick and resides between the sapwood and the phloem. It repeatedly divides itself to form new wood and causes the tree to grow and expand.

Cannel, channel

the concavity of a gouge blade.

Carbide steel

Extremely hard, long wearing steel used in high quality cutters, blades, bits and knives.


The body of a piece of furniture with a box like shape. (i.e. a kitchen cabinet)

Card scraper

a flat blade with a burred edge used for smoothing.

Case Hardening

A defect in the lumber caused by improper drying. Case Hardening is caused when a board is dried too fast. The outer layers in a case hardened board are compressed while the inner layers are in tension.


Trim work around any opening; most commonly associated with doors and windows.


The smallest, microscopic, structure in wood.


A slight angular edge that is formed on a piece of stock for decorative purposes or to eliminate sharp corners. Chamfers are similar to bevels but are less pronounced and do not go all the way from one surface to another.


A lumber defect caused by uneven shrinking of the wood during drying. A checked board has splits which develop lengthwise across the growth rings.


The part of a tenon parallel to the face of the board. See Tenon.

Chip carving

incised surface decoration, usually geometric.


a type of vise.


The part of a drill that holds the bit in place.


A strip fastened to one part to hold it in place or to facilitate the fastening of another part.

Close grain

woods with very fine fibers of cells that are not visibly porous.

Closed Coat

A piece of sandpaper with a surface completely covered with abrasive particles. This type of paper tends to clog easily with sawdust and is generally not used for woodworking. See also - open coat


In a router, the sleeve that grips the shank of a bit.

Common Grade Lumber

Lumber with obvious defects.

Compound Cut

An angled cut to both the edge and face of a board.

Compound Cutting

The act of cutting out a project or project component (usually with a bandsaw) to create a three-dimensional or "sculpted" shape. This is accomplished by cutting one profile, taping scraps back in place, and rotating the workpiece to cut a second profile, usually 90 to the first.

Compound Miter

A combination miter and bevel cut. Generally a compound miter is used in building shadow box picture frames and similar projects where angled or "deep set" project sides are desired.

Compound Rip Cut

An operation that is performed by tilting the work table to the desired angle and guiding the workpiece through the cut with the aid of a taper jig. Typical uses for this cut would include the construction of pyramid-shaped projects; hollow, tapered posts or cylinders; or concrete forms for deck mountings, etc.


The force exerted to push the components of a joint together.

Compression Wood

Reaction wood that forms on the lower side of a leaning softwood tree.


Generally a reduced surface relative to the surrounding surfaces. In lathe turning, a concave cut is called a cove.


reduction of a whole log into pieces suitable for working.


Generally a raised surface relative to the surrounding surfaces. In lathe turning, a convex cut is called a bead.

Cope-and-stick joint

A method of construction raised panel doors where the tongues of the rails (horizontal) connect to the grooves of the stiles (vertical).


A unit of measure often used for firewood stacked 4


The act of making one end of a drilled hole larger than the other to permit the head of a bolt or screw to drop below the surface of the workpiece. Counterbores, unlike countersinks, have straight sides (not angled). In woodworking, counterbored holes are often filled with wood plugs or screw buttons to create the illusion of dowel joinery.


A shallow angled or beveled hole that is formed to allow the head of a flathead screw or bolt to be recessed and tightened flush with the surface of the workpiece. The tool designed to produce this special hole is called a countersink.


A concave profile milled into a board's surface.


The creation of a concave cut or "groove" in the edge or surface of a workpiece. A cove can be produced with a router bit or by passing the workpiece across the top of a rotating table saw blade at an angle with the aid of a special coving fixture.


A lumber defect where there is an edgewise warp effecting the straightness of the board.

Cross Bevel

A bevel formed on the end of a workpiece by cutting perpendicular to the grain of the stock. Cross bevels are used most often in creating "invisible" joints where the sides of square, octagonal or other shaped boxes and similar projects meet.


A cut made across (or perpendicular to) the grain of the wood.


working perpendicular to the grain.


In lumber, a piece of wood taken from the fork of a tree. Crotch Veneer is highly valued for its figuring.

Crown of thorns

a system of self-supporting and interlocking pieces.

Cubic feet per minute (CFM)

A rating that indicates the amount of air a fan, blower or compressor can move.


A defect in the lumber where the face of the board warps up like the letter U.


A type of warping that causes boards to curl up at their edges.